These are exposure studies associated with the disease and all of its children.
|Reference||Associated Study Title||Author's Summary||Study Factors||Stressor||Receptors||Country||Medium||Exposure Marker||Measurements||Outcome|
|1.||Ferraro PM, et al. (2010).||National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)||Moderately high levels of urinary and blood Cadmium are associated with a higher proportion of chronic kidney disease and albuminuria in the United States population.||Cadmium||Controls for disease:Albuminuria | Subjects with disease:Albuminuria | Controls for disease:Renal Insufficiency, Chronic | Subjects with disease:Renal Insufficiency, Chronic | Study subjects||United States||blood | urine||Cadmium||Details||Albuminuria | Renal Insufficiency, Chronic|
|2.||Liang Y, et al. (2012).||Results suggest that a Cadmium-mediated increase in urinary albumin excretion is reversible upon substantial reduction of exposure.||Cadmium||Study subjects||China||blood | urine||Cadmium||Details||Albuminuria | Kidney Diseases | renal system process|
|3.||Navas-Acien A, et al. (2009).||National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)||In this large, representative sample of US adults, increased blood cadmium and lead levels were strong, independent risk factors for the prevalence of albuminuria, reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate, and both outcomes together.||Cadmium | Lead||Controls for disease:Albuminuria | Subjects with disease:Albuminuria | Study subjects||United States||blood||Cadmium | Lead||Details||Albuminuria | Kidney Diseases | glomerular filtration|
|4.||Buser MC, et al. (2016).||National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)||The inverse association between estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and blood Cadmium (B-Cd), in conjunction with positive associations between eGFR and albumin with urinary Cadmium (U-Cd), suggest that U-Cd measurement at low levels of exposure may result from changes in renal excretion of Cd due to kidney function and protein excretion.||Cadmium | Lead||Study subjects||United States||blood | urine||Details||Albuminuria | glomerular filtration|
|5.||Lin YS, et al. (2014).||National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)||Our results suggest that low serum zinc concentrations are associated with an increased risk of cadmium nephrotoxicity; elevated blood cadmium was also associated with several demographic characteristics (age, sex, body mass index, race/ethnicity, hypertension, and smoking status).||age | body mass index | disease | race | sex | tobacco||Cadmium | Zinc||Controls for disease:Albuminuria | Subjects with disease:Albuminuria | Controls for phenotype:negative regulation of glomerular filtration | Subjects with phenotype:negative regulation of glomerular filtration | Study subjects||United States||blood||Cadmium | Zinc||Details|
|6.||Staples B, et al. (2003).||This longitudinal study has shown that about half of the adults exposed to hexachlorobutadiene showed evidence of a subclinical proximal tubular effect. Similarly, about a quarter of adults displayed a distal tubular effect.||hexachlorobutadiene||Study subjects||United Kingdom||Details||Kidney Diseases | Proteinuria | gene expression|