Skip navigation

Disease Respiratory Tract Diseases

These are exposure studies associated with the disease and all of its children.

Send correction
1–50 of 236 results.
  Reference Associated Study Title Author's Summary Study Factors Stressor Receptors Country Medium Exposure Marker Measurements Outcome
1. Glynn A, et al. (2008). This hypothesis generating study suggests that background exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene early in life modulate immune system development. 2,2',3',4,4',5-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2,3,3',4,4',5-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2,3,3',4,4'-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,4,4'-trichlorobiphenyl | 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2,4,5,2',5'-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,5,2',5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl | Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene | PCB 180 | Polychlorinated Biphenyls Infants or newborns | Mothers | Pregnant females Sweden milk, human | serum 2,2',3',4,4',5-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2,3,3',4,4',5-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2,3,3',4,4'-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,4,4'-trichlorobiphenyl | 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2,4,5,2',5'-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,5,2',5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl | Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene | PCB 180 Details Respiratory Tract Infections | immune system development
2. Allen JG, et al. (2016). Our findings confirm the presence of diacetyl and other flavoring chemicals in flavored e-cigarettes. 2,3-pentanedione | Acetoin | Diacetyl United States e-cigarette 2,3-pentanedione | Acetoin | Diacetyl Details Bronchiolitis Obliterans
3. Dallaire F, et al. (2004). These results show a possible association between prenatal exposure to organochlorines and acute infections early in life in this Inuit population. 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl | Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene | Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated Infants or newborns | Mothers Canada plasma 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl | Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene | Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated Details Gastrointestinal Diseases | Otitis Media | Respiratory Tract Infections
4. Hoppin JA, et al. (2007). Agricultural Health Study (AHS) These results provide preliminary evidence that pesticide use may increase chronic bronchitis prevalence. 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic Acid | Carbaryl | Carbofuran | chlorimuron ethyl | DDT | Diazinon | Dichlorvos | fenoprop | Heptachlor | Malathion | Permethrin Workers United States Details Agricultural Workers' Diseases | Bronchitis, Chronic
5. Hoppin JA, et al. (2017). Agricultural Health Study (AHS) We evaluated the association of currently used pesticides with allergic and non-allergic wheeze among male farmers, and our results implicate several pesticides that are commonly used in agricultural and residential settings with adverse respiratory effects. 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid | acetochlor | Atrazine | bentazone | Carbaryl | Chlorpyrifos | clomazone | clopyralid | cyfluthrin | Dicamba | Dimethoate | Disulfoton | fenoxaprop ethyl | fluazifop-butyl | glyphosate | Herbicides | imazaquin | Insecticides | Malathion | mesotrione | metolachlor | N-(2,6-difluorophenyl)-5-methyl(1,2,4)-triazol(1,5-a)pyrimidine-2-sulfonamide | nicosulfuron | Permethrin | Petroleum | Picloram | Pyrethrins | Rodenticides | Simazine | triclopyr | Trifluralin | Warfarin Workers United States Details Respiratory Sounds | Rhinitis, Allergic
6. Hoppin JA, et al. (2002). Agricultural Health Study (AHS) Prevalence of wheeze was associated with individual pesticides independent of animals, crops, and grains. disease 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid | alachlor | Aldicarb | aluminum phosphide | Atrazine | Benomyl | butylate | Captan | Carbaryl | Carbofuran | chlorimuron ethyl | Chlorpyrifos | Coumaphos | cyanazine | Diazinon | Dicamba | Dichlorvos | EPTC | Fonofos | glyphosate | imazethapyr | Lindane | Malathion | Maneb | metalaxyl | metolachlor | metribuzin | Paraquat | Parathion | pendimethalin | Permethrin | Petroleum | Phorate | terbufos | tetrachloroisophthalonitrile | Trichlorfon | Trifluralin | Ziram Subjects with disease:Asthma | Subjects with disease:Ige Responsiveness, Atopic | Workers United States Details Agricultural Workers' Diseases | Respiratory Sounds
7. Slager RE, et al. (2009). Agricultural Health Study (AHS) Exposure to pesticides may increase the risk of rhinitis. 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid | Benomyl | Carbofuran | Diazinon | glyphosate | Petroleum Workers United States Details Agricultural Workers' Diseases | Rhinitis
8. Hoppin JA, et al. (2008). Agricultural Health Study (AHS) These findings suggest that pesticides may contribute to atopic asthma, but not nonatopic asthma, among farm women. 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid | Carbamates | Carbaryl | Coumaphos | DDT | glyphosate | Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated | Malathion | metalaxyl | Organophosphates | Parathion | Permethrin | Pesticides | Phorate Study subjects United States Details Agricultural Workers' Diseases | Asthma
9. Elliott L, et al. (2006). National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) Exposure to 1,4-dichlorobenzene (a volatile organic compound related to the use of air fresheners, toilet bowl deodorants, and mothballs) at levels found in the US general population, may result in reduced pulmonary function. 4-dichlorobenzene | Volatile Organic Compounds Study subjects United States blood 1,1,1-trichloroethane | 2-xylene | 3-xylene | 4-dichlorobenzene | 4-xylene | Acetone | Benzene | ethylbenzene | methylethyl ketone | Styrene | Tetrachloroethylene | Toluene Details PULMONARY FUNCTION
10. Lerro CC, et al. (2015). Agricultural Health Study (AHS) The associations between acetochlor use and lung cancer, colorectal cancer, melanoma and pancreatic cancer are suggestive; however, the lack of exposure-response trends, small number of exposed cases, and relatively short time between acetochlor use and cancer development prohibit definitive conclusions. acetochlor Workers United States Details Agricultural Workers' Diseases | Colorectal Neoplasms | Lung Neoplasms | Melanoma | Pancreatic Neoplasms
11. Lerro C, et al. (2014). Agricultural Health Study (AHS) The associations between acetochlor and colorectal and lung cancer are novel; however, due to lack of exposure-response trend, small number of exposed cases, and relatively short time between use and cancer development, these findings warrant caution in interpretation and further investigation. acetochlor Workers United States Details Agricultural Workers' Diseases | Colorectal Neoplasms | Lung Neoplasms
12. Shankardass K, et al. (2009). Children's Health Study (CHS) These results suggest that children from stressful households are more susceptible to the effects of traffic-related pollution and in utero tobacco smoke on the development of asthma. race | socioeconomic status | tobacco Air Pollutants Children United States Nitric Oxide Details Asthma
13. Salameh P, et al. (2012). Chronic bronchitis is associated with outdoor air pollution in Lebanon. Air Pollutants Controls for disease:Bronchitis, Chronic | Subjects with disease:Bronchitis, Chronic Lebanon Details Bronchitis, Chronic
14. Hansell A, et al. (2016). Office for National Statistics Longitudinal Study This large national study suggests that air pollution exposure has long-term effects on mortality that persist decades after exposure, and that historic air pollution exposures influence current estimates of associations between air pollution and mortality. Air Pollutants Study subjects United Kingdom air, ambient Particulate Matter | Soot | Sulfur Dioxide Details Death | Respiratory Tract Diseases
15. Velická H, et al. (2015). These results suggest moderately strong associations between air pollutant concentrations and respiratory difficulties among asthmatic children and adolescents. disease Air Pollutants Subjects with disease:Asthma | Children Czech Republic air, ambient Nitrogen Dioxide | Particulate Matter | Sulfur Dioxide Details Respiratory Sounds
16. Ierodiakonou D, et al. (2016). Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP) Air pollution adversely influences lung function and methacholine responsiveness in asthmatic children, and treatment with controller medications might not protect but rather worsen the effects of carbon monoxide on methacholine responsiveness. disease Air Pollutants Subjects with disease:Asthma | Children Canada|United States air, ambient Carbon Monoxide | Nitrogen Dioxide | Ozone | Sulfur Dioxide Details response to bronchodilator
17. Liu X, et al. (2012). Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that exposure to air pollution from fuel-fired power plants and volatile compounds coming from hazardous waste sites increases the risk of hospitalization for respiratory diseases. Air Pollutants Study subjects United States Air Pollutants Details Asthma | Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive | Respiratory Tract Infections
18. Karr C, et al. (2007). Subchronic and chronic particulate matter PM2.5 exposures were associated with increased risk of bronchiolitis hospitalization for infants. Air Pollutants Controls for disease:Bronchiolitis | Subjects with disease:Bronchiolitis | Infants or newborns United States air, outdoor Carbon Monoxide | Nitrogen Dioxide | Ozone | Particulate Matter Details Bronchiolitis
19. Pun VC, et al. (2015). Nurses' Health Study (NHS) Particulate matter in the prior 1 and 12 months is associated with pulmonary embolism risk, and women with underlying health conditions may be more susceptible to pulmonary embolism after particulate matter exposure. sex Air Pollutants Study subjects United States air, ambient Particulate Matter Details Pulmonary Embolism
20. Raun LH, et al. (2014). In Houston (Texas), ozone and nitrogen dioxide are important triggers of asthma attacks in a multi-pollutant model, and persons at highest risk are aged 46-66, African Americans, and males. age | race | sex Air Pollutants Subjects with disease:Asthma | Study subjects United States air, ambient Carbon Monoxide | Nitrogen Dioxide | Ozone | Particulate Matter | Sulfur Dioxide Details Asthma
21. Kan H, et al. (2007). Global Air Quality Guidelines set by World Health Organization | US National Ambient Air Quality Standards Our analyses provide the first statistically significant evidence in China that particulate matter (PM2.5) has an adverse effect on population health and strengthen the rationale for further limiting levels of PM2.5 in outdoor air in Shanghai. Air Pollutants Study subjects China|United States air, ambient Ozone | Particulate Matter Details Cardiovascular Diseases | Respiratory Tract Diseases
22. White N, et al. (2009). International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) The study showed a measurable health effect, both an excess of asthma symptoms in comparison with the rest of the city, and more frequent wheezing symptoms associated with an index of estimated petrochemical refinery emissions exposure. Air Pollutants Children South Africa Details Asthma
23. Lundström SL, et al. (2011). Several of the altered oxylipins have known or suspected bronchoprotective or anti-inflammatory effects, suggesting a possible reduced anti-inflammatory response in asthmatics following exposure to subway air. disease Air Pollutants Controls for disease:Asthma | Subjects with disease:Asthma Sweden lung 12,13-epoxy-9- keto-10-octadecenoic acid | 12-Hydroxy-5,8,10,14-eicosatetraenoic Acid | 13-hydroxy-9,11-octadecadienoic acid | 13-Hydroxy-octadecatrienoic acid | 13-oxo-9,11-octadecadienoic acid | 15-hydroxy-5,8,11,13,17-eicosapentaenoic acid | 15-hydroxy-5,8,11,13-eicosatetraenoic acid | 15-hydroxyeicosatrienoic acid | 15-keto-5,8,11,13-eicosatetraenoic acid | 17-hydroxy-4,7,10,13,15,19-docosahexaenoic acid | 5,6-epoxy-8,11,14-eicosatrienoic acid | 5-hydroxy-6,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid | 8,9-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid | 9,10,13-trihydroxyoctadec-11-enoic acid | 9,12,13-trihydroxy-10-octadecenoic acid | 9-hydroxy-10,12-octadecadienoic acid | 9-oxo-10,12-octadecadienoic acid | ALOX15 | Dinoprostone | Leukotriene B4 | PPARG | Prostaglandin D2 | PTGS1 | PTGS2 | Thromboxane B2 Details negative regulation of inflammatory response | oxylipin biosynthetic process
24. Bowatte G, et al. (2016). Melbourne Atopy Cohort Study (MACS) Traffic-related air pollution is associated with some respiratory outcomes in carriers of genetic polymorphisms in oxidative stress metabolism genes. genetics Air Pollutants Children | Subjects with gene influence:GSTM1 | Subjects with gene influence:GSTT1 Australia Details Asthma | Respiratory Sounds | Rhinitis, Allergic, Seasonal
25. César AC, et al. (2015). Even at nitrogen oxides concentrations below the acceptable standard, there is association with deaths caused by respiratory diseases. Air Pollutants Study subjects Brazil air, ambient Carbon Monoxide | Nitrogen Oxides | Ozone | Particulate Matter Details Death | Respiration Disorders
26. López-Villarrubia E, et al. (2010). Our findings indicate the existence of a short-term association between current exposure levels to air pollutants and total mortality as well as mortality due to heart and respiratory diseases in both Canary cities studied along with evidence that the association on a given day may spread over several successive days. Air Pollutants Spain air Carbon Monoxide | Nitrogen Dioxide | Ozone | Particulate Matter | Sulfur Dioxide Details Death | Heart Diseases | Respiratory Tract Diseases
27. Clark NA, et al. (2010). We observed a statistically significantly increased risk of asthma diagnosis with increased early life exposure to carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter (PM10), sulfur dioxide, and black carbon and proximity to point sources. age Air Pollutants Controls for disease:Asthma | Subjects with disease:Asthma Canada Carbon Monoxide | Nitric Oxide | Nitrogen Dioxide | Ozone | Particulate Matter | Soot | Sulfur Dioxide Details Asthma
28. Pattenden S, et al. (2006). Pollution and the Young (PATY) Evidence for associations between nitrogen dioxide and respiratory symptoms was robust only for inhalation allergies. Air Pollutants Children Austria|Italy|
Netherlands|Russian Federation|
Switzerland
air, ambient Nitrogen Dioxide | Particulate Matter | Sulfur Dioxide Details Respiratory Hypersensitivity
29. Zhang F, et al. (2011). Study on the association between ambient air pollution and daily cardiovascular and respiratory mortality in an urban district of Beijing. Air Pollutants Study subjects China air, ambient Nitrogen Dioxide | Particulate Matter | Sulfur Dioxide Details Cardiovascular Diseases | Death | Respiratory Tract Diseases
30. Schildcrout JS, et al. (2006). Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP) This study reports the relation between ambient concentrations of five air pollutants and asthma exacerbations: lags in carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide were positively associated with both measures of asthma exacerbation, and the 3-day moving sum of sulfur dioxide levels was marginally related to asthma symptoms, but particulate matter PM10 and ozone were unrelated to exacerbations. Air Pollutants Children Canada|United States air, ambient Carbon Monoxide | Nitrogen Dioxide | Ozone | Particulate Matter | Sulfur Dioxide Details Asthma
31. Xue X, et al. (2013). The hOGG1 Ser326Cys polymorphism might be associated with the risk of lung adenocarcinoma in Chinese non-smoking females. Furthermore, there is a significant gene-environment association between cooking oil fumes and hOGG1 326 Cys/Cys genotype in lung adenocarcinoma among female non-smokers. genetics Air Pollutants Controls for disease:Adenocarcinoma of lung | Subjects with disease:Adenocarcinoma of lung | Subjects with gene influence:OGG1 China Details Adenocarcinoma of lung
32. Fung KY, et al. (2007). Since hospital admissions rates were significantly higher in 'Chemical Valley' as compared to both London and Windsor, we hypothesize that these higher rates are pollution related. Air Pollutants | Carbon Monoxide | Nitrogen Dioxide | Ozone | Sulfur Dioxide Canada air Carbon Monoxide | Nitrogen Dioxide | Ozone | Sulfur Dioxide Details Cardiovascular Diseases | Respiratory Tract Diseases
33. Yu HL, et al. (2012). Asian dust storms may significantly increase the risks of respiratory diseases consecutively in the week after exposure, especially in school children. Air Pollutants | Dust Children Taiwan, Province of China air, outdoor Carbon Monoxide | Nitrogen Oxides | Ozone | Particulate Matter | Sulfur Dioxide Details Respiratory Tract Diseases
34. Chen E, et al. (2008). The physical and social environments interacted in predicting both biologic and clinical outcomes in children with asthma, suggesting that when pollution exposure is more modest, vulnerability to asthma exacerbations may be heightened in children with higher chronic stress. Air Pollutants | Nitrogen Dioxide Subjects with disease:Asthma | Children Canada IL13 | IL4 | IL5 | Nitrogen Dioxide Details Asthma
35. Barraza-Villarreal A, et al. (2008). Exposure to particulate matter <= 2.5 microns in aerodynamic diameter resulted in acute airway inflammation and decrease in lung function in both asthmatic and nonasthmatic children. Air Pollutants | Nitrogen Dioxide | Ozone | Particulate Matter Controls for disease:Asthma | Subjects with disease:Asthma | Children Mexico air Nitrogen Dioxide | Ozone | Particulate Matter Details Signs and Symptoms, Respiratory | regulation of inflammatory response
36. Zúñiga J, et al. (2016). There could be an association between the air pollution in Panama City (Panama) and an increase in cardiovascular and respiratory mortality. Air Pollutants | Nitrogen Dioxide | Ozone | Particulate Matter Study subjects Panama air, ambient Nitrogen Dioxide | Ozone | Particulate Matter Details Cardiovascular Diseases | Death | Respiratory Tract Diseases
37. Sarnat SE, et al. (2012). The results indicate adverse effects of air pollution on the subclinical respiratory health of asthmatic children in this region and provide preliminary support for the use of air pollution monitors close to schools to track exposure and potential health risk in this population. disease Air Pollutants | Nitrogen Dioxide | Ozone | Particulate Matter | Soot | Vehicle Emissions Subjects with disease:Asthma | Children Mexico|United States air | air, ambient | air, indoor | air, outdoor Nitric Oxide | Nitrogen Dioxide | Ozone | Particulate Matter | Soot Details
38. Thompson AM, et al. (2010). In our analysis, exposure to ambient levels of ozone and sulfur dioxide was positively and significantly associated with a systemic inflammatory response as measured by systemic levels of interleukin 6 (IL6). Air Pollutants | Nitrogen Dioxide | Ozone | Particulate Matter | Sulfur Dioxide Controls for disease:Asthma | Subjects with disease:Asthma | Study subjects Canada air | blood | plasma Carbon Monoxide | IL6 | Nitrogen Dioxide | Ozone | Particulate Matter | Sulfur Dioxide Details interleukin-6 biosynthetic process
39. Beelen R, et al. (2008). Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer (NLCS) We found evidence for an association of exposure to black smoke and traffic with lung cancer incidence in people who had never smoked. diet | tobacco Air Pollutants | Nitrogen Dioxide | Particulate Matter | Smoke | Sulfur Dioxide Controls for disease:Lung Neoplasms | Subjects with disease:Lung Neoplasms | Study subjects Netherlands air, ambient Nitrogen Dioxide | Particulate Matter | Smoke | Sulfur Dioxide Details Lung Neoplasms
40. Liu MM, et al. (2013). This large epidemiologic study of Chinese children confirmed that indoor air pollution from home renovation, coal stoves, passive smoking, and other risk factors was harmful to the respiratory system. Air Pollutants | Nitrogen Dioxide | Particulate Matter | Sulfur Dioxide Children China air Nitrogen Dioxide | Particulate Matter | Sulfur Dioxide Details Cough | Respiratory Sounds | Respiratory Tract Diseases | Rhinitis, Allergic
41. Morgenstern V, et al. (2007). We estimated long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollutants: significant associations were found between particulate matter PM2.5 and sneezing, runny/stuffed nose during the first and second years of life, and between nitrogen dioxide and dry cough at night (or bronchitis) during the first year of life. Air Pollutants | Nitrogen Dioxide | Particulate Matter | Vehicle Emissions Children | Study subjects Germany air, outdoor Nitrogen Dioxide | Particulate Matter Details Bronchitis | Cough | Sneezing
42. Reibman J, et al. (2009). World Trade Center Environmental Health Center (WTC EHC) Residents and local workers as well as those with work-associated exposure to WTC dust have new and persistent respiratory symptoms with lung function abnormalities 5 or more years after the World Trade Center destruction. Air Pollutants | Particulate Matter Study subjects United States Details Dyspnea
43. Kalappanavar NK, et al. (2012). The study provides a first evidence of the strong association between air pollution and development of airway diseases. Carbon particles in macrophages in the sputum can be used as a marker for air pollution. Air Pollutants | Particulate Matter Children India air | macrophage Carbon | Particulate Matter Details Lung Diseases
44. Cao J, et al. (2012). Our findings suggest that Particulate Matter (PM2.5) constituents from the combustion of fossil fuel may have an appreciable influence on the health effects attributable to PM2.5 in Xi'an. Air Pollutants | Particulate Matter China air Arsenic | Bromine | Cadmium | Calcium | Chlorides | Chlorine | Chromium | Fluorides | Iron | Lead | Magnesium | Manganese | Molybdenum | Nickel | Nitrates | Nitrites | Nitrogen Dioxide | Particulate Matter | Potassium | Sodium | Sulfates | Sulfur | Sulfur Dioxide | Titanium | Zinc Details Cardiovascular Diseases | Respiration Disorders
45. Pope CA 3RD, et al. (2011). American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study II (ACS CPS-II) The exposure-response relationship associated with PM2.5 is qualitatively different for lung cancer versus cardiovascular mortality. At low exposure levels, cardiovascular deaths are projected to account for most of the burden of disease, whereas at high levels of PM2.5, lung cancer becomes proportionately more important. tobacco Air Pollutants | Particulate Matter Study subjects United States cigarette Particulate Matter Details Cardiovascular Diseases | Death | Lung Neoplasms
46. Goodman PG, et al. (2004). We assessed the associations of particulate pollution (black smoke) and temperature with age-standardized daily mortality rates over 17 years in Dublin, Ireland, using a polynomial distributed lag model of both temperature and particulate air pollution simultaneously through 40 days after exposure. Air Pollutants | Particulate Matter | Smoke Study subjects Ireland air Smoke Details Cardiovascular Diseases | Death | Respiratory Tract Diseases
47. Samoli E, et al. (2016). Our results suggest that exhaust-related pollutants are associated with increased numbers of adult cardiovascular and pediatric respiratory hospitalizations. age Air Pollutants | Particulate Matter | Vehicle Emissions Children | Study subjects United Kingdom air, ambient Aluminum | Carbon | Carbon Monoxide | Copper | Nitrogen Dioxide | Nitrogen Oxides | Ozone | Particulate Matter | Soot | Sulfur Dioxide | Zinc Details Cardiovascular Diseases | Respiratory Tract Diseases
48. Tsuji M, et al. (2012). Interleukin 22 (IL22) mRNA expression in blood samples is a useful biomarker for assessing the adverse health effects of polychlorinated biphenyls on allergic children, especially children with egg hypersensitivity, milk hypersensitivity, and asthma. diet | disease Air Pollutants | Polychlorinated Biphenyls Subjects with disease:Asthma | Children | Subjects with disease:Egg Hypersensitivity | Subjects with disease:Milk Hypersensitivity Japan blood | serum IL22 | Polychlorinated Biphenyls Details
49. Higuchi K, et al. (2012). This study showed that Mt. Sakurajima's volcanic activities increased the mortality of lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases in the Sakurajima-Tarumizu area, which has the largest amount of ashfall from the volcano in its vicinity. Air Pollutants | Silicon Dioxide Study subjects Japan Air Pollutants | Silicon Dioxide Details Death | Lung Neoplasms | Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive | Respiration Disorders
50. Greven F, et al. (2009). In this study, a strong positive association was found between exposure to combustion products of a fire in a chemical waste depot and self-reported persisting respiratory symptoms among both workers involved in the incident and the general population in the affected area. sex | tobacco Air Pollutants | Smoke Study subjects | Workers Netherlands Details Respiration Disorders | Respiratory Tract Diseases
1–50 of 236 results.