These are exposure studies associated with the disease and all of its children.
|Reference||Associated Study Title||Author's Summary||Study Factors||Stressor||Receptors||Country||Medium||Exposure Marker||Measurements||Outcome|
|1.||Hutson JR, et al. (2012).||Our results demonstrate that chronic and heavy alcohol use in pregnancy impairs folate transport to the fetus. Altered folate concentrations within the placenta and in the fetus may in part contribute to the deficits observed in the fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.||alcohol drinking||Ethanol||Fetuses | Pregnant females||Canada||plasma | plasma, cord||Folic Acid||Details||Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders | transport|
|2.||Shojaeepour S, et al. (2018).||Use of lead-adulterated opium causes high frequency of lead toxicity symptoms, hematological and biochemical abnormalities, and oxidative stress which are associated with blood level level (BLL). Route of opioid use and the polymorphism of rs1800435 in ALAD gene are the major determinants of BLL in lead-adulterated opium users.||Lead | Opium||Subjects with disease:Opium Dependence||Iran, Islamic Republic of||blood||Lead | Opium||Details||Lead Poisoning | lipid metabolic process | response to oxidative stress|
|3.||Kleinjan M, et al. (2012).||International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC)||Nicotine dependence profiles are predicted by interactions between personal and environmental factors.||age||Nicotine||Children||Netherlands||Nicotine||Details||Tobacco Use Disorder|
|4.||Aschengrau A, et al. (2011).||The results of this study suggest that risky behaviors, particularly drug use, are more frequent among adults with high tetrachloroethylene exposure levels during gestation and early childhood.||Tetrachloroethylene||Study subjects||United States||Tetrachloroethylene||Details||Substance-Related Disorders|