|Authors||Nishijo M, Morikawa Y, Nakagawa H, Tawara K, Miura K, Kido T, Ikawa A, Kobayashi E, Nogawa K.|
|Citation||Occup Environ Med. 2006 Aug;63(8):545-50.|
OBJECTIVES: To clarify the causes of death of residents with renal tubular dysfunction induced by cadmium (Cd) in the environment.
METHODS: A 15 year follow up study was performed with the inhabitants living in the Cd polluted Kakehashi River basin in Japan. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) for causes of death, classified by ICD-9, were computed using the person-years method to investigate the excess mortality of subjects with urinary beta2-MG (microglobulin) > or =1000 microg/gCr. Mortality risk analysis was performed using Cox''s proportional model to compare mortality between subjects with urinary beta2-MG > or =1000 and <1000 microg/gCr, and to investigate the relationship between the degree of urinary beta2-MG and mortality.
RESULTS: Excess mortality due to heart failure and cerebral infarction in both sexes, and nephritis and nephrosis in men, was observed among subjects with urinary beta2-MG > or =1000 microg/gCr. Significant increases in mortality risk for cerebral infarction in men and for malignant neoplasms in women with urinary beta2-MG > or =1000 microg/gCr were observed during the first five year observation period. For nephritis and nephrosis, the mortality risks for men and women with urinary beta2-MG > or =1000 microg/gCr significantly increased over the 15 year observation period. The mortality risks for heart failure and cerebral infarction increased in proportion to the increased urinary beta2-MG in both sexes. Increased mortality risks for nephritis and nephrosis were identified in the subjects with urinary beta2-MG > or =10000 microg/gCr in both sexes.
CONCLUSION: Renal tubular dysfunction induced by Cd affected the causes of death, and mortality for heart failure, cerebral infarction, and nephritis and nephrosis was increased among inhabitants living in a Cd polluted area in Japan. In women, cancer mortality may have been increased while Cd pollution was ongoing.