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Help: References


  1. Overview
  2. Basics


CTD provides access to a subset of PubMed® references related to toxicologically significant vertebrate and invertebrate genes and associated chemicals and diseases. Reference information is integrated with chemical and disease data in CTD, and is acquired from PubMed®.

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The last name and first initial(s) of each author of the reference. Click an author name to retrieve all references in CTD by that author.


The first author's institutional affiliation and contact information as it appears in the reference.


The reference's bibliographic citation, including journal MEDLINE® abbreviation, date, volume, issue and page numbers.

DOI (full text)

The Digital Object Identifier (DOI) of the reference. The DOI links to the full text of the reference.

DOIs are unique identifiers assigned to objects of intellectual property such as electronic journal articles. They provide current information about an object, including where it (or information about it) can be found online. The DOI System is managed by the International DOI Foundation.

PubMed® ID

If available, the unique PubMed ID of the reference. A link to the source PubMed record is also provided.

Review Status

The review status of the reference: either unreviewed or curated for interactions by CTD. You may request curation of any unreviewed reference.

Curator Notes

Comments added by a CTD curator.


The abstract of the reference. The full text may be available via PubMed or the DOI.