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Help: Reference Chemical–Gene Interactions

CTD curates specific chemical–gene and protein interactions in vertebrates and invertebrates from the published literature. Most interactions are binary, involving one chemical and one gene or protein (e.g., “3-methylquercetin results in decreased activity of ABCC1 protein”). Brackets represent nested events in more complex interactions (e.g., “[3,4,5,3',4'-pentachlorobiphenyl binds to AHR protein] which results in increased expression of ABCC3 mRNA”).

For each reference with curated interactions, we present:

  1. The interacting chemical.
  2. The interacting gene.
  3. The organism in which the interaction was reported.
  4. The description of the interaction, with color-coded action degrees:
    • increases
    • decreases
    • affects (degree unspecified)


Sort these data differently by clicking a column heading.


Save these data into a comma-separated values (CSV), Excel, XML, or tab-separated values (TSV) file by clicking a Download link at the bottom of the table.